Things That Matter

If You Don’t Know The History Of Cinco De Mayo, Here’s A Brief History Lesson Before You Celebrate The Holiday

Cinco de Mayo is upon us and while there is nothing wrong with going out and having a few margaritas with friends, it is important to know why Cinco de Mayo is even a thing. No. It isn’t Mexico’s Independence Day and for the most part, Mexicans aren’t partying it up all night like most of us do here. There are celebrations but they focus more on the history and significance of the day rather than 2 for 1 margaritas specials and bottomless chips and salsa. Let’s go ahead and break down Cinco de Mayo in a *brief* history lesson.

First, let’s just get this out of the way: Cinco de Mayo ≠ Mexican Independence Day.


If you think Cinco de Mayo is Mexican Independence Day, your history is more than half a century off. Cinco de Mayo is a day to remember and celebrate the Battle of Puebla when Mexican forces unexpectedly defeated French forces in 1862 from an attempted invasion. Mexico got their independence from Spain on Sept. 16, 1810, a full 52 years before the Battle of Puebla.

It all started in 1861 when Benito Juárez, an indigenous Zapeteco, was elected president of Mexico. However, the Mexican government was low on money and they defaulted on their debts to some European countries.


According to History, years of internal turmoil leading up to Juárez’s election left Mexico in financial ruin. He had no other option than to default on debts owed to some European powers because they just didn’t have the cash. In response, three European countries, Spain, Britain, and France, sent forces to Mexico to demand repayment on the money they had borrowed. Luckily, Juárez was able to negotiate with Spain and Britain and they abandoned their crusade and returned home. However, Napoleon III, the ruler of France at the time, saw this as an opportunity to take some land and set up shop in Mexico.

Spain, Britain, and France all deployed forces to Mexico for repayment on defaulted debt but Napoleon III of France was the only person who wasn’t willing to negotiate. Instead, he sent his forces to Mexico determined to take some land and create an empire.


The first thing France did was drive Juárez, his government, and his forces out of Veracruz by force.


According to History, with the government and military forces in retreat and expecting an instant victory, 6,000 French troops under the direction of General Charles Latrille de Lorencez began their march to Puebla de Los Ángeles.

French forces quickly began advancing onto Puebla de Los Ángeles on their way to Mexico City to continue their invasion.


Puebla, as it is known today, is located between Veracruz and Mexico City. According to The Guardian, Puebla was founded more than 500 years ago by Spaniards as a travel town since it was located between the two major cities. So, obviously, in order for the French to make it to Mexico City, they would have followed the most traveled path between the two landing them right into Puebla.

But, what the French didn’t know was that Juárez had assembled a group of 2,000 men who, led by Texas-born Ignacio Zaragoza, were ready to fight for Mexico.


The French really had no idea what was waiting for them. But, let’s not forget that the French had 6,000 troops while Mexico had only 2,000. Just by the numbers, it seemed like France was going to steamroll right through Puebla on their way to Mexico City.

When the French made it to Puebla, it was May 5, 1862 and the battle began to rage. According to History, the battle went on for less than a day before the French admitted defeat in the battle and retreated.


The Mexican troops who were both smaller in number and significantly under armed, prevailed. The French lost 500 men in the Battle of Puebla while the Mexico lost just under 100 men. The French did retreat from Puebla defeated, but it wasn’t the last time the French would take aim at this town. Between March and May of 1863, the French returned and conquered Puebla, according to Napoleon.Org. By July of 1863, French forces had taken control of Mexico City and Juárez was with his troops in San Luis Potosí and established their French empire in Mexico. It wasn’t until 1867, when Napoleon III became disillusioned with ruling Mexico, that French forces began leaving Mexico.

To this day, Mexicans remember the day of their unexpected victory with reenactments and parades.


Sure. Some people party but the point of Cinco de Mayo isn’t about drinking and partying, but remembering a time when only 2,000 Mexican forces were able to stop the conquering of Mexico by French forces.

You can watch an ABC news story about Cinco de Mayo below:


READ: White House Decides To Celebrate Cinco De Mayo A Day Early And Social Media Isn’t Having It

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These Were The Moments That Defined Latin America In 2020 That Weren’t About COVID-19

Things That Matter

These Were The Moments That Defined Latin America In 2020 That Weren’t About COVID-19

2020 will easily go down in manny of our memories as the year that just wouldn’t stop. As the year started, it all seemed to be sort of fine as the world came together to battle record-breaking Australian bushfires and worked to hopefully contain an outbreak of a strange new virus in China.

However, as the year comes to a close things have gone de mal a peor for the world in general, but for the Latino population in the United States and Latin America as a region in particular. Though it’s hard to realize just how much we all witnessed and experienced since so much of what happened seems like it was a lifetime ago.

Here’s a look back at some the defining moments from 2020 across Latin America.

Jennifer Lopez and Shakira kicked off the year hopeful with a history-making performance at the Super Bowl.

Yes, believe it or not, this happened in 2020. The pair put on what many have called the best half time show in Super Bowl history. They were also joined by J Balvin and Bad Bunny.

Bolivia’s Evo Morales was forced into exile, only to return to the country in November.

After being forced into exile at the end of 2019 for attempting to illegally run in upcoming presidential elections, Morales spent a year abroad – first in Mexico and then in Argentina.

Mexico’s President AMLO made his first trip abroad to visit Donald Trump at the White House.

Mexico’s President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador is a staunch populist and has long said his primary focus is domestic policy within Mexico. Therefore, despite two years in office, AMLO hadn’t left Mexico once. So it came as a surprise when his first trip abroad was a visit to the U.S. leader who had long disparaged Mexico, the government, and Mexicans – not to mention his trip came in the middle of a global pandemic.

Migrant caravans continued to make their way towards the U.S. despite interference from Mexico and Covid-19.

Migrants attempting to make their way to the U.S. isn’t unique to 2020. For decades, migrants have long banded together for safety in numbers along the treacherous journey to the north. However, they became larger and better organized in 2020, perhaps owing to the new dangers of Mexican interference.

Mexico’s AMLO vowed to stop migrants from reaching the U.S.-Mexico border, adhering to Trump’s request. It was also noteworthy because the caravans continued despite the Covid-19 crisis, which has hit the region particularly hard.

Peru saw three presidents in the span of a few weeks after massive protests.

Peru is facing one of the greatest crises the nation has faced. Just as the country seemed to be emerging from the worst of its battle against the Covid-19 pandemic, the country has entered a severe political crisis.

The country’s elected president, Martin Vizcarra, was impeached and removed from office. His predecessor responded with a heavy hand to the protests that ensued resulting in his resignation less than 24 hours later. The government then had to find someone willing to take the job which proved to be a tough sell.

In fact, massive protests swept across Latin America.

From Mexico in the north to Cuba in the Caribbean and Chile in the south, protests were seen all across the region. Although each movement had it’s own stated goal and objectives, many were largely borne out of the same purpose: to fight back against corruption.

Brazil’s President Jaír Bolsonaro tested positive for Covid-19 but it did nothing to change his approach to the pandemic.

Jaír Bolsonaro has long been compared to Donald Trump, with many calling him the Donald Trump of South America. The two were also strongly aligned in their responses to the Coronavirus pandemic, with the pair largely downplaying the severity of the crisis.

Then, Bolsonaro became infected with the virus and many hoped it would change his view on the crisis. It didn’t.

A growing feminist movement developed in Mexico, demanding protection from a shocking rise in violence against women.

Mexico has long been battling endemic violence and the country has continued to see record-setting rates of homicides. But it was the growing rate of violence against women, particularly femicide, that gained national attention.

Women banded together and started large nationwide protests. Over the summer, women in the capital of Mexico City occupied government buildings and destroyed many of the city’s most popular monuments to hopefully get their message across. Although the movement has gained more recognition by Mexicans, the government has still failed to address their concerns. Let’s hope things are different in 2021.

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The Romance Between Frida Kahlo And Chavela Vargas Gets Renewed Attention As Long Lost Love Letters Are Uncovered

Entertainment

The Romance Between Frida Kahlo And Chavela Vargas Gets Renewed Attention As Long Lost Love Letters Are Uncovered

Frida Kahlo’s paintings perfectly show the artist’s whirlwind of emotions throughout her life. Her art gives a look into her passions, her pains and her loves, which went far beyond Diego Rivera. 

It’s long been known that the prolific artist had many loves throughout her life, both men and women, and including many major personalities of their time. Everyone from Tina Modotti and the politician León Trotsky were on that list in addition to her longtime companion, Diego Rivera. However, one of Kahlo’s great loves and of whom little is said was the singer Chavela Vargas.

Chavela, who was 12 years younger than Frida, spoke on several occasions about the love she had for Kahlo when her musical career began to take off, while she was “a child.” And thanks to recently discovered love letters we have a new perspective on this little known relationship.

New love letters give us details into the romance between Frida Kahlo and Chavela Vargas.

Although Chavela had claimed to have destroyed all of the love letters she received from Frida Kahlo, new love letters have recently been discovered that paint a new light on the romance.

There is one letter Kahlo had written to Carlos Pellicer, a Mexican poet, to express her feelings about the singer. She told him that after meeting Chavela she felt attracted to her from the very first moment – in some pretty steamy language.

“Today I met Chavela Vargas. Extraordinary, lesbian, what’s more, I wanted her erotically. I don’t know if she felt what I did. But I think she’s a liberal enough woman, that if she asks me, I wouldn’t hesitate for a second to undress in front of her. How many times do you not want to get laid and that’s it? She, I repeat, is erotic. Is it a gift that heaven sends me?”, wrote Kahlo.

It was shortly after Kahlo wrote that letter that Chavela went to live with her and Diego at La Casa Azul. In another recently discovered letter, Vargas writes – of her time at Casa Azul – that she felt very happy and in love, as well as loved by Kahlo.

“She taught me a lot of things and I learned a so much. Without giving away too much, I held the sky with my hands, with every word, every morning,” she said.

The lovers had an intense relationship that has fascinated fans to this day.

The two had met at one of the many parties Kahlo and Rivera would host at their home in Casa Azul. The couple were prolific entertainers and often threw extravagant parties.

Before her death, Vargas detailed that night’s meeting.

“A painter friend invited me. She said: ‘There’s a party at Frida’s house tonight. Shall we go?’ I went and the atmosphere was full of people. The night passed, we sang, everyone danced, everyone entertained,” Vargas says in the documentary Chavela, released in 2017.

“I was in a daze when I saw her face, her eyes. I thought she couldn’t be a being from this world. Her eyebrows together were a swallow in flight. Without yet having the maturity of a woman in me, since I was a very young girl, I sensed that I could love that being with the most devoted love in the world, the strongest love in the world,” said the singer about Frida.

Although the romance didn’t last long thanks in part to the painter’s relationship with Diego Rivera.

Credit: Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images

Vargas confessed that the romance didn’t last for a long time on the account of having to share the painter’s love with Diego Rivera. According to Vargas, one day Kahlo simply decided to abandon her.

“My words possibly hurt her a lot when I told her I was leaving and she told me: ‘I know. It is impossible to tie you to anybody’s life. I can’t tie you to my crutches or to my bed. Go away!’ And one day I opened the door and didn’t come back,” Vargas said.

Although the singer never spoke about whether she had intimate relationships with the painter, the romance, as well as the great love and attraction they felt for each other is something that cannot be denied.

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