Fierce

This Boricua Psychologist Wants Latinas To Understand The Different Types Of Trauma

Dr. Lydiana Garcia is a bilingual and bicultural (Puerto Rican) licensed psychologist in Los Angeles. She is also the creator and founder of The Beyond Resilience Life podcast which focuses on overcoming trauma and life adversities in order to live a beyond resilient life. Follow her on Instagram @lydianagarcia.

The word trauma originates from the Greek and means “wound” (Online Etymology Dictionary). Although the term was used for only physical injuries, nowadays it is also used to refer to other injuries; such as emotional, psychological, spiritual, etc.

There are many definitions of trauma, but I really like Elaine Miller-Karas, LCSW (Miller-Karas, 2015) definition:

It is an individual’s perception of an event as threatening to oneself or others

Something considered traumatic for one person, may not be “traumatic” for another. This applies to family members, loved ones, friends and in the general population.

One important fact is that trauma happens in the body, as the body created a response to a perceived threat and responded to it.

Depending on how the body interprets the imminence of the threat, then the body either has a mobilized (for example: fight or flee) or immobilized (freeze) response. The trauma responses can happen for perceived threats to our physical safety, our personality or “self,” to our loved ones, what we care about, our beliefs and our dreams.

There are many reactions associated with experiencing trauma.

Some of the most common reactions are the repetitive recollection of the traumatic experience through dreams, thoughts, images and sensations as if the person were back in that time; avoiding consciously thinking about the trauma. Others react to trauma by going to places or spending time with people that remind them of what happened. The heightened sense of needing to be in alert for another possible similar situation (hypervigilance) is also common. And being easily startled, irritability, poor concentration, fear, difficulties falling and/or staying asleep are also common symptoms.

Some people experience a shift in perspective about themselves.

Amnesia, feeling numb, feeling out of the body, or as if the world is not real; depressive symptoms like sadness, hopelessness and some even experience suicidal ideations; interpersonal difficulties including having difficulties relating to others, not feeling close to people, fear of abandonment are also sentiments that people feel when they are dealing with trauma.

The literature on trauma has made reference to different types of trauma including “small-t,” “Large-T,” and “C-Trauma.” These refer to the events or situations that can result in trauma. “Large-T” refers to the typical events most people associate the word trauma with, for example: natural disasters, war-related violence, sexual assault, child abuse, car accidents, and near-death experiences. “Small-t” refers to events that the majority might not consider it traumatic, but the individual did. Some examples of “small-t” include medical procedures, ending a relationship, and moving. “C-Trauma” refers to cumulative trauma that can result from systemic oppression, racism, micro-aggressions, poverty, colonialism and other similar experiences. When someone has experienced several types of traumas, or for a long period of time, this can also be considered complex trauma. Another type of trauma that can be relevant to mention in developmental trauma; this refers to the traumas that happened in childhood and tend to have a significant impact in our attachments; our ability to relate to others and feel safe.

Generational trauma then refers to trauma that has been transmitted from generation to generation.

This refers to the recipients of this trauma, as the “inheritors.” Think of this as a kind of second-hand story that has been invisible, often unacknowledged, but detrimental to our ability to be whole.

Generational trauma can be passed down through our genes (epigenetics), in the womb (during pregnancy), and through psychological and social aspects. One of the ways it is transmitted epigenetically is when a child is raised in the same environment as their ancestors from generation to generation, triggering a reformation of the gene; therefore, creating epigenetic imprinting (Sullivan, 2013).

In your earliest biological form, as an unfertilized egg, you already shared a cellular environment with your mother and grandmother. When your grandmother was five months pregnant with your mother, the precursor cell of the egg you developed from was already present in your mother’s ovaries (Wolynn, 2016).

This means that what your grandmother and mother experienced during pregnancy can be passed down to you. Your inception can also be similarly traced in your paternal line.

The psychological aspects referenced previously refers to the effect trauma can have in an individual that can affect raising a child, not only behavioral but also in terms of psychological factors like emotion tolerance and management, relationships, and beliefs. For example, a mother that experienced complex trauma in her childhood; including her caregivers neglecting her needs and not offering physical affection, might be triggered by having a child on her own that is crying and needs to be changed or fed, and can react by becoming very overwhelmed and anxious about it or the opposite, repeat the pattern. 

The oppression and injustices that many minorities groups experienced can continue to impact the following generations.

For example, the racism that Latinx encountered when they immigrated to the US continues to be present. Some might argue that is less due to their children being able to speak perfect English and attend school in the US, but these children are still being considered different and are mocked and ridiculed regardless of their US citizenship. Their caregivers, in an attempt to protect them from these injustices, tend to also promote values of family unity as a way to keep them safe, being afraid of the police and authority, and not trusting friends or outside-of-the-family people. These factors and more contribute to the passage of trauma experience and reactions from generation to generation.

Many people learn about generational trauma and initially might be shocked about it, but also feel somewhat hopeless in regard to all the things that are out of their control and continue to impact their daily lives. However, others might use this knowledge as part of the beginning of their healing journey by increasing the awareness of their bodies, recognizing what is theirs and what can be a result of generational trauma. Seeking help to process unhealed wounds is another way to take actions to reduce the transmission of trauma to their families and communities. The question is which path will you take?

Works Cited

Baack, G. A. (2017). The Inheritors; Moving Forward from Generational Trauma. Berkley, CA: She Writes Press.

Miller-Karas, E. (2015). Building Resilience To Trauma; The Trauma and Community Resilience Models. New York: Routledge.

Online Etymology Dictionary. (2019, July 26). https://www.etymonline.com/word/trauma. Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com: https://www.etymonline.com/word/trauma

Sullivan, Shannon. Inheriting Racist Disparities in Health: Epigenetics and the

Transgenerational Effects of White Racism. Critical Philosophy of Race 1(2),

2013, pp. 190–218

Wolynn, M. (2016). It Didn’t Start With You; How Inherited Family Trauma Shapes Who We Are and How to End the Cycle. New York, New York: Penguin Books.

Hand Sanitizer Was Invented By A Latina Nursing Student In The 1960s

Fierce

Hand Sanitizer Was Invented By A Latina Nursing Student In The 1960s

Kelly Sikkema / Unsplash

When the novel coronavirus COVID-19 started to spread in the U.S., hand sanitizer became a hot commodity. Stores sold out of the product needed to clean your hands while on the go to prevent catching and spreading the virus. But, did you know that a Latina nursing student in the 1960s created hand sanitizer?

Lupe Hernandez, a nursing student in California in 1966, is the woman behind hand sanitizer.

Credit: @Rainmaker1973 / Twitter

Hernandez was in nursing school in Bakersfield, California when she thought about a gel form of rubbing alcohol. Hernandez realized that a gel form of alcohol would make it possible for people to clean their hands while on the go with no access to water and soap.

Hernandez knew she was on to something so she reached out to an invention hotline and submitted a patent.

While washing your hands is the best way to avoid contracting COVID-19, hand sanitizer is an important tool for those that still have to work. It is also a good option for people who are still healthy but have to go to the pharmacy, grocery store, or bank.

Hand sanitizer was just an industry product until the H1N1 viral outbreak in 2009.

Credit: Kelly Sikkema / Unsplash

The 2009 outbreak of H1N1 drove up the demand for hand sanitizer among the public and it was soon packaged for consumers. According to The Guardian, the value of the hand sanitizer market has grown exponentially since the time before and after the H1N1 scare.

In 2018, the global hand sanitizer market value was $2.6 billion. The Guardian reports that the U.S. market value of hand sanitizer was $28 million in 2002 and $80 million in 2006.

Viral outbreaks like H1N1 make hand sanitizer a highly-prized commodity and some people try to profit off that fear.

Matt Colvin faced severe backlash after he and his brother bought out thousands of bottles of hand sanitizer in Tennessee and Kentucky after the first COVID-19 death in the U.S. The two covered 1,300 miles driving through Tennessee and Kentucky buying all of the hand sanitizers they could find in various dollar stores.

The brothers then started selling the hand sanitizer on Amazon for as much as $70 a bottle. Amazon shut them down and the attorney general of Tennessee launched an investigation into them for price gouging. They pledged to donate the product and Tennessee officials are making sure they follow through with the promise.

READ: American Cities And States Announce Mass Closures As They Brace For The Growing COVID-19 Outbreak

American Cities And States Announce Mass Closures As They Brace For The Growing COVID-19 Outbreak

Things That Matter

American Cities And States Announce Mass Closures As They Brace For The Growing COVID-19 Outbreak

Governor Andrew Cuomo / Mayor Eric Garcetti / Facebook

A number of states and cities across the U.S. are taking drastic measures to limit the spread of COVID-19. Bars, restaurants, movie theaters, concert venues, gyms, and schools are all shutting down to limit the spread of the virus that has infected more than 179,000 people globally. The death toll for COVID-19 in the U.S. continues to climb as more cases are discovered. Major cities are taking the virus seriously and taking extra steps to keep their residents safe and healthy.

COVID-19 has been detected in 49 states, Washington D.C., and Puerto Rico.

There are currently more than 3,200 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the U.S. with more than 70 deaths reported. Most of the deaths have occurred in long-term care facilities in Washington state among elderly people. California, New York, Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, Colorado, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Virginia have also reported deaths from the novel coronavirus. Dr. Anthony Fauci, a member of President Trump’s COVID-19 response task force, doesn’t doubt that we are still waiting for the peak of infections and deaths in the U.S. from COVID-19.

“Well, it’s certainly going to get worse before it gets better and the kinds of mitigation strategies, containment, and mitigations that you’re talking about, is to do that kind of physical separation of people, which is one of the very effective ways you really mitigate the spread of the virus,” Dr. Fauci, an official with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), said on ABC. ” If you look at the pattern of viruses, particularly these kinds of viruses, and even look at what’s gone on in China and in Italy and in South Korea, you go along like this the way we were then you have this big spike that goes way up. Then after a while, after much disease and suffering and death, it comes back down again.”

Dr. Fauci added: “The purpose of the mitigation is to get that peak and to blunt it so that it’s a bit of a hill as opposed to a mountain. We’re at a critical point now, more in some regions of the country than in others, the kinds of things that are going on will hopefully make that blunting of that peak so that we can save a lot of lives and save a lot of illness.”

Major cities across the U.S. are shutting down businesses and telling residents to self-isolate to curb the spread of the pandemic.

Update on COVID-19 Response from Mayor Eric Garcetti

To help prevent the spread of COVID-19, I’m taking executive action to temporarily close bars, nightclubs, restaurants (except takeout/delivery), entertainment venues, and other establishments in the city of Los Angeles. These orders go into effect at midnight tonight and will stay in place until March 31 unless extended. There is no food shortage and grocery stores will remain open. We’re taking these steps to help protect Angelenos, limit the spread of the novel coronavirus, and avoid putting a dangerous strain on our health care system. This will be a tough time, but it is not forever. Angelenos have always risen to meet difficult moments, and we will get through this together.———————————————————Para ayudar a prevenir la propagación de COVID-19, estoy tomando medidas ejecutivas para cerrar temporalmente los bares, discotecas, restaurantes (excepto comida para llevar / a domicilio), lugares de entretenimiento y otros establecimientos en la ciudad de Los Ángeles. Estas órdenes entrarán en vigor a la medianoche de esta noche y permanecerán vigentes hasta el 31 de marzo al menos que se extiendan. No hay escasez de alimentos y los supermercados permanecerán abiertas. Estamos tomando estos pasos para ayudar a proteger a los Angelinos, limitar la propagación del nuevo coronavirus y evitar una tensión peligrosa en nuestro sistema de atención médica.Este será un momento difícil, pero no es para siempre. Los Angelinos siempre se han levantado para enfrentar momentos difíciles, y lo superaremos juntos.

Posted by Mayor Eric Garcetti on Sunday, March 15, 2020

West Virginia, Washington D.C., Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, New Mexico, Oregon, Michigan, Florida, Washington state, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Arizona, North Carolina, Minnesota, Illinois, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Diego have all shut down schools.

Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti announced on Sunday night that entertainment venues, gyms, fitness studios, bars, movie theaters, and nightclubs would be closed until March 31. Bars and restaurants can only serve take-out orders in an attempt to limit the spread of COVID-19.

Pennsylvania Governor Tom Wolf expanded measures to the rest of the state to halt the spread of COVID-19.

Gov. Tom Wolf called on the state to close all nonessential government offices and putting a stop to all nonessential business. Health experts are calling for Americans to do a better job od self-isolating and hunkering down to prevent COVID-19 from spreading further.

“This isn’t a decision that I take lightly at all,” Gov. Wolf told the press during a briefing. “It’s one that I’m making because medical experts believe it is the only way we can prevent our hospitals from being overwhelmed by patients.”

Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York joined together to pass similar lockdown provisions to tackle COVID-19 together.

‘”Our primary goal is to slow the spread of #Coronavirus so that the wave doesn’t crash our healthcare system,” Gov. Cuomo tweeted. “Social distancing is the best way to do that. I have called on the federal gov’t to implement nationwide protocols, but in their absence we are taking this on ourselves.”

On Sunday, New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio ordered all hospitals to cancel elective surgeries, closed senior city centers, and postponed an election in Queens. Visitors are also no longer to go to Rikers Island.

Health experts are urging all Americans to take the necessary steps to prevent spreading COVID-19.

Social distancing and self-isolation are important tools Americans can utilize to make sure the COVID-19 outbreak is curbed. It is going to be a very tough time for millions of Americans who are hunkering down and waiting not the next few weeks as the global community tries to get this virus under control. Everyone has a part to play. Now’s the time.

READ: Navarro College Cheerleaders Of ‘Cheer’ Face Dayton Competition Cancellation Over Coronavirus