You probably already think chocolate is heavenly, but did you know that ancient Mesoamericans believed chocolate came directly from the Gods? A new TED-ed video details the ancient, bizarre and often times, brutal history of chocolate.
In ancient Mesoamerica, chocolate was real different. It was mixed with cornmeal and chili peppers into a bitter, frothy, liquid concoction.
The drink the Mesoamericans created with cacao beans was very different from the overpriced milkshakes you get from the ice cream truck. They thought it was some sort of elixir, capable of giving its drinker great vigor and strength.
They literally thought the cacao plant and chocolate were gifts from the Gods.
Remember learning about the Aztec God “Quetzalcoatl” (aka Kukulkan to the Mayans) in junior high? According to Mesoamericans, you have him to thank for chocolate. And you have your history teacher to thank for getting “Quetzalcoatl” stuck in your head after studying his name for hours.
The drink was served at royal feasts and used in everything from rewarding soldiers to performing rituals.
Around the 1500’s, when Spain was sending ships out all over the Atlantic Ocean, they landed in Mesoamerica in Tenochtitlan, and as you would imagine, things got sticky. The king brought out fifty chocolate jugs and golden chalices and the Spaniards eyebrows went up like “Oh, hey, friend. That’s cool. I’m just going to run back home to Spain for a minute, I think I left the stove on. Heh.”
And then they came back with an army.
After bringing chocolate back to Europe, they obviously fell in love with it, and like with all goods at the time, they needed to exploit it.
Mexico’s pre-Columbian civilizations—the Olmecs, Mixtecs, Toltecs, Zapotecs, Aztecs (or Mexica), Maya, and others—can be hard to keep straight, but they all shared a few common traits. Most of their archaeological sites include ball courts, they considered corn an essential crop, and they all built pyramids.
Sadly, the pyramids in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan are long gone, but dozens of others throughout Mexico still stand. The following 10 sites, which were constructed over roughly two millennia (from around 900 B.C.E. to about 1000 C.E.), are among the most spectacular and culturally important in the country. Many are even located near Mexico’s major destinations, making it easy for visitors to spend a day exploring the country’s ancient past.
La Iglesia and El Castillo, Coba
The ancient Maya city of Coba, which peaked between 800 and 1100 C.E., is home to two impressive pyramids—the Iglesia and the Castillo (the second largest pyramid on the Yucatán peninsula). Half-ruined and covered in plants, both structures look as if they’ve recently been unearthed, creating a mysterious, almost magical atmosphere.
Getting There: Coba is just over two hours by car from Cancún and 45 minutes from Tulum. If you’d rather not drive, many tour operators offer excursions.
Castillo de Kukulcán, Chichén Itzá
The Castillo de Kukulcán, with its nine stepped platforms, is the centerpiece of Chichén Itzá, a Maya city that flourished from around 700 to 900 C.E. The pyramid functioned as an enormous calendar and was designed so that, on the equinoxes, the play of sunlight and shadow would create the illusion of a snake descending to earth. While visitors are no longer allowed to climb the steps or access the Temple of Kukulcán at the top of the pyramid, they can tour other ball courts, temples, and palaces throughout Chichén Itzá.
Getting There: Given that it’s halfway between Cancún and Mérida, this UNESCO World Heritage site is often crowded with tourists and vendors. The plus is that you can experience Chichén Itzá as it was during its peak—a bustling city.
Pyramid of the Magician, Uxmal
The Maya were never centralized in one capital, as were the Aztecs and the Toltecs. Instead, the civilization resembled ancient Greece, with competing, independent city-states that shared a language and religious beliefs even as they developed different styles of architecture and their own distinct characters. The contrast between Chichén Itzá and Uxmal is impossible to miss. The structures at Uxmal, including the Pyramid of the Magician, were built in the Puuc style, with highly stylized motifs and a decorative richness not typical of other Maya cities.
Getting There: A drive of about 70 minutes, on two well-maintained highways, will take you from modern Mérida to ancient Uxmal.
Pyramid of the Inscriptions, Palenque
The buildings at Palenque, in the state of Chiapas, are impressive less for their size than for the elegance of their design. The 89-foot-high Pyramid of the Inscriptions is topped by a temple with piers covered in Maya hieroglyphs—hence the “inscriptions” in its name. Archaeologists estimate that only 10 percent of Palenque has been excavated and other wonders are surely waiting to be unearthed.
Getting There: With the opening of the Palenque airport in 2014, it’s become easy to visit this once remote site. Interjet offers twice-weekly flights (on Wednesdays and Saturdays) from Mexico City.
Great Pyramid of La Venta
Located in the state of Tabasco, La Venta is home to Mexico’s oldest known pyramid, built around 900 B.C.E. The structure isn’t particularly tall at 100 feet and, since it was built of clay instead of stone, its original rectangular shape has been softened by the ages, making it appear more like a rounded hill. Still, it’s fascinating to behold, as is the sophisticated urban planning of La Venta, which served as a forerunner to Teotihuacan, Tula, and other ancient capitals.
Getting There: You have to work to visit La Venta. The site is located in a wet, humid corner of Mexico about 90 minutes by car from Villahermosa, which is already off the beaten path. Bring insect repellent.
Monte Albán Pyramids
Situated along the Pacific, the state of Oaxaca was, and still is, the center of the Zapotec people. Monte Albán served as the capital for more than a millennium, from around 500 B.C.E. to 800 C.E., and traded frequently with Teotihuacan—another Mesoamerican city with a similarly large ceremonial center. Today, visitors can explore the site’s “truncated” pyramids, which look like raised platforms topped by temples, as well as several famous tombs and stone carvings.
Getting There: Sitting five miles from the city center of Oaxaca, Monte Albán is easy to reach by bus or taxi.
Pyramid of the Niches, El Tajin
In the state of Veracruz, El Tajin is one of the most important sites from the so-called epiclassic (or late classic) period, dating from around 900 C.E. The city’s residents were avid ballplayers—more than 60 ball courts have been excavated here. You’ll also see one of Mexico’s most unusual buildings, the Pyramid of the Niches. The relatively short pyramid, 59 feet high, consists of six platforms, each lined with carved niches that were most likely used to track the days of the year.
Getting There: El Tajin is pretty remote, but if your travels take you to Veracruz, it’s a four-hour drive to the site.
Great Pyramid of Cholula
The largest pyramid in the world (in terms of volume) is not in Egypt, but outside the city of Puebla. Upon first glance, however, the Great Pyramid of Cholula looks like something else entirely, covered in vegetation and topped with a 16th-century church constructed by the Spanish. Visitors can access some of the restored sections of the pyramid, then explore the nearly five miles of tunnels excavated by archeologists throughout the surrounding ancient city.
Getting There: Cholula is four miles outside of Puebla, which is famous for its colonial buildings, cuisine, and the recently opened International Museum of the Baroque.
Pyramid of the Sun and Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan, which flourished from roughly 100 B.C.E. to 550 C.E., was one of the most influential cities in Mesoamerica, with a population of nearly 200,000 at its peak. Dominated by the enormous Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon, and a citadel, which sit along the 2.5-mile-long Avenue of the Dead, the site awed even the Aztecs, who wondered what vanished civilization could have created such a monumental city.
Getting There: Located an hour north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan is a popular day trip (visit midweek for smaller crowds). Many tours stop en route at the Basilica of Guadalupe for a glimpse into another aspect of Mexican culture.
Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, Tula
The Toltecs stepped into the vacuum created by the fall of Teotihuacan, establishing their capital at Tula (or Tollan), which reached its peak between 950 and 1150 C.E. The most impressive structure here is the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, fronted by a colonnade and topped by imposing, 13-foot-tall statues of Toltec warriors, but you’ll also want to explore the vast ceremonial plaza, the palace, and the ball courts.
Getting There: Tula is another easy day trip from either Mexico City (roughly 90 minutes by car) or the colonial city of Querétaro (just under 2 hours).
Ted Talks have grown in demand due to their refreshing, informative, and exciting topics and speakers. Whether we’re learning about scientific, cultural, political, and academic matters, it is the speaker that brings these topics to life. We especially like when we hear from extraordinary Latinas including Pia Mancini, an activist and technical project leader from Argentina, Isabel Allende and a Chilean writer who spoke about passion. Last week’s speaker touched on a topic that many Latinas could relate to.
America Ferrera gave a Ted Talk and discussed how representation in the media ultimately brings an “extraordinary richness of humanity.”
On April 19, Ferrera was among several speakers at the Session 12 of TED2019 held in Vancouver, Canada. The actress, activist, and director addressed the audience and spoke about who her identity as a Latina of Honduran descent seemed at first to be her obstacle, but she slowly realized it meant more than that.
“My identity is not an obstacle — it’s my superpower,” she said.
The “Superstore” actress said she had to break through the mold of portraying stereotypical roles.
Ferrera said she didn’t want to play the “Gangbanger’s Girlfriend” or “Pregnant Chola #2” but instead more complicated roles.
“I wanted to play people who existed in the center of their own lives, not cardboard cutouts that stood in the background of someone else’s,” she says, “Who we see thriving in the world teaches us how to see ourselves, how to think about our own value, how to dream about our futures.”
She added, “In spite of what I’d been told my whole life. I saw firsthand that my ‘unrealistic expectations’ to see myself authentically represented in the culture were other people’s expectations too.”
Ferrera said that Hollywood is more inclusive of minorities, but it’s not enough.
Even though her breakthrough role in “Real Women Have Curves” has launched more diverse characters in Hollywood, she says there’s still so much work that needs to be done.
“Change will come when each of us has the courage to question our own fundamental values and beliefs,” Ferrera said, “and see to it that our actions lead to our best intentions.”
We love the picture of Ferrera’s baby watching her speak during the Ted Talk. She captioned the photo by saying, “My baby boy watching me deliver my talk yesterday at #ted2019 – Thank you @ted for inviting me to share my truth and a message I believe in with my whole heart. #TheFutureIsWatching.”